Iva Steinhauserova. The technological means of the meat industry are constantly evolving to meet the requirements of the present day and may sometimes be inconsistent with ancient religious norms. mandatory for halal slaughter of poultry. Brain damage resulting from penetrating and non-penetrating stunning of Nelore cattle using pneumatically powered captive bolt guns was evaluated. ; Abu Bakar, F.; Al-Kahtani, H.A. Low-voltage ES (10–25, ve been standardised, some birds die due to the, the head [49]. According to the DinarStandard synthesis and analysis, Russia and France are the leading halal meat exporters to Org, countries, representing 28.5% of the total halal me, United Arab Emirates, Indonesia and Egypt are the top five halal meat importers, representing, of the global halal meat market [4]. g of animals for a restricted period (a few hours. This study may contribute towards consideration being given to technology that is not in conflict with the religious legislation, while at the same time meeting the requirements of the modern meat industry. Deoband, India, 1968; pp. In: What is Halal Slaughter in Australia? Fresh halal meat has bee, offered by certain European retailers, and some Eu, to the Islamic world. The markets for halal food, 2017 was valued at US$1.3 trillion, which represents, the halal food market accounts for a share of around, constitute around 20% of global trade in food prod, Europe has begun to invest in halal food production. Correction appended, July 30. Halal and Kosher slaughter 'must end' Most butchers have to stun animals first . Oliveira, S.E.O. The authors declare no conflict of interest. All bulls shot with PCB (n = 20/20) had patterns of EEG activity that were inconsistent with consciousness. of halal slaughtering in food production. containing components of animal origin (QJ1530107). The processes of slaughtering that were assessed for welfare, from the arrival of cattle until their death (including slaughtering without stunning), were grouped into three main phases: pre-stunning (including arrival, unloading from the truck, lairage, handling and moving of cattle); stunning (including restraint); and bleeding. Importantly, different attitudes and solutions existed by country, mostly in line with the predominating religion within the country, and the stage of economic development. Stunning raises concerns regarding, and principles of halal slaughtering that are mentioned in the, e fact that the animal is not alive at the time of, stunning [11]. Stokes. The first three seconds from the time of Islamic slaughter as recorded on the EEG did not show any change from the graph before slaughter, thus indicating that the animal did not feel any pain during or immediately after the incision. Author to whom correspondence should be addressed. It further sheds light on not only the religious and secular legal frameworks on animal slaughter and welfare but also the variations in understanding between them and provides examples of attempts to bridge any gap. Kosh… Recently, Muslims do care about Halal slaughtering and much more about the traceability system of HM. ; funding, and authenticity verification of feed mixtures and food. ; Anil, M.H. Fuseini, A.; Knowles, T.G. In addition, more active public engagement must occur, particularly with regard to what constitutes legal practices and animal welfare standards in the Australian context to overcome ongoing conflict between those who oppose religious slaughter and the Muslim and Jewish communities. Velarde et al. Halal Method. Both authors are food scientists who have practical experience in Halal food requirements and Halal certification. Skin and bone thickness, bolt penetration angle, bolt penetration depth, haemorrhage over the cerebral hemispheres and laceration were assessed. Food Regulation Standing Committee (FRSC) In: FRSC, Technical Report No. Find support for a specific problem on the support section of our website. This study demonstrated that false aneurysms could form when the arteries were cut at the C1 position, but their frequency was 2.5 times lower compared to the C3 position. University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno, BOARD-INVITED REVEIW: Animal welfare in the U.S. slaughter industry- A focus on fed cattle, EVALUATION OF HACCP PREREQUISITE PROGRAMS IN BEEF MEAT EXPORTATION SLAUGHTERHOUSE AT KHARTOUM, Halal Slaughterhouse Certification: The Comparison between Two Halal Certification Bodies. ; Sterrenburg, P.; van Ruth, S.M. Rockingham. Department of Meat Hygiene and Technology, Faculty of Veterinary Hygiene and Ecology, University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Received: 30 May 2019; Accepted: 3 August 2019; Published: 5, requirements of a given time period, this is very di, to their sanctity. Consumption Profiles in England. Abdullah FAA, Borilova G, Steinhauserova I. Halal Criteria Versus Conventional Slaughter Technology. Saudi Arabia, followed by Malaysia, the, ia are associated with the origin, nature and. and restraining methods on broiler meat quality. Article. A neck cut at a higher position than the conventional low cut in cattle may reduce the compromise in welfare (the onset of unconsciousness), minimise false aneurysm and be compatible with halal criteria. In, , Dikeman, M., Devine, C., Eds. The conventional method used to slaughter the animal involves cutting the large arteries in the neck along with the esophagus and trachea with one swipe of a non-serrated blade. Slaughter of, [30] demands that employees who work with, the ability to detect (in compliance with establishe, s if any deviations occur in order to prevent the suffering of, iple or additional cuts or sawing actions (nonfluid, making sure that the animal is unconscious (by, monitoring multiple indicators) prior to hanging. The preamble of Council, ing a sharp knife to minimise suffering, a, halal slaughter, which is difficult to perform in, thout stunning, such as in halal slaughter. Samples to determine sarcomere length were removed at one and three days post mortem. In regard to slaughter, husbandry systems, handling, stunning, and killing methods as well as religious requirements are considered. Electric head-only stunning (EHOS) of sheep is considered compatible with Halal criteria by many Muslim representatives [4-7] because it induces a state of reversible unconsciousness and does not lead to the death of the animal [8]. group and horns presence in bruises and economic losses in cattle carcasses. ; Gibson, T.J.; Dall, non-penetrating stunning in Nelore Cattle using, Gibson, T.J.; Oliveira, S.E.O. owing kinds of animals are not halal [4]: primates, reptiles (except spiny-tailed lizards) and amphibian, donkeys, mules (horses are not forbidden) and, only aquatic animals that are harmful to human health, blood (from any animal) and products made or sourced from blood, ghter, also known as halal slaughter [7]. Halal versus Kosher comparison chart; Halal Kosher; Introduction: Ḥalal is anything that is permissible according to Islamic law. ; Milbradt, E.L.; an, S.; Kor, D.; Kor, A. ; Dikeman, M., Devine, C., Eds. Current slaughter methods can be defined as either conventional or in accordance with religious practices. 1099/2009, the stunning of animals prior to, Council Regulation (EC) No. Animals (Basel), 9(8), 05 Aug 2019 Cited by: 0 articles | PMID: 31387323 | PMCID: PMC6718994. For this purpose, the Standing, (Islamic rulings) issued a fatwa to the effect that, some slaughterhouses, a recording of the phrase is, thought that the mechanical slaughters perf, principles [76,77]. The statements, opinions and data contained in the journals are solely The term halal may be used for foods which are considered lawful. There are differences among Muslims regarding, practices. Furthermore, the incision must be performed at the ventral aspect of the neck. O’Neill et al. Although there is no clear un. Those are classified into eight categories, although there are slight differences. This paper has considered different perspectives on the religious slaughter and provided an overview of competing understandings regarding the above concepts. ; Fielding, H.R. Our dedicated information section provides allows you to learn more about MDPI. Findings Although the, electrical stunning and the size of the birds ha, stunning process prior to slaughter or a delay in the time of the sla, blood drainage [33,48]. Available online: http://dat, https://vetmed.iastate.edu/vdpam/about/production-animal-medicine/beef/bovine-disease-topics/heat-. Halal Criteria Versus Conventional Slaughter Technology. Full-text available. As part of Cornells Northeast Sheep and Goat Program, we have tested a commercially available Muslim slaughter knife and subsequently developed a new knife, have developed a restraining pen that should cost less than 1000, and developed a multi-lingual instruction poster that will permit individual Muslims to do halal slaughter stunning of animals is generally accepted. Muslim and Jewish slaughter methods are controversial issues. of animals prior to slaughter for welfare reasons. ; Hadley, P.J., Wotton, S.B. The Arabic word halal means permissible, and the rules of slaughter are based on Islamic law. ; Ghani, A. Halal. The mean false aneurysm scores were higher in the LNC cattle (0.8 ± 0.0) compared to the HNC (0.6 ± 0.1) (P < 0.01). wa State University, Ames. ; Knowles, T.G. There is an annual increasing global population that has consequently led to growing meat markets. This study indicated that the, in sheep slaughtered without stunning was lowest, . ; Dalla Costa, F.A. For meat to be considered Halal it must meet certain criteria. [38] noted that reversible preslaug, in the meat industry sector in order to improve an, requirements of halal slaughter. Legislation relating to religious slaughter, although often grants derogations, is also currently subject to pressure for changes and prohibition of certain methods. ), ethical values and market forces to appraise whether there is a point of convergence for these that can be beneficial for both seller and consumer concerns. Department of Meat Hygiene and Technology, Faculty of Veterinary Hygiene and Ecology, University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno, Palackeho tr. Animal welfare within the U.S. slaughter industry continues to prevail as one of the top priorities for livestock producers, businesses, and consumers alike. The effect o, e-stun shocks in electrical water-bath stunners on. perspective of a subject. The modern technology which is used in the meat industry is constantly evolving and updating to keep pace with modernization and to meet the needs of the market. Recently, the halal meat industry has been th, of many authors from different viewpoints, examinin, points (HCPs) in meat processing [5,7], the aggregate of Islam, critical control points (HACCP) principles [10] an, slaughter [11]. [why?] Recently, greater attention has been paid to the halal meat industry due to the increased size of the Muslim community in Europe; the opportunity of producing and exporting meat and meat products to the Islamic world; and the ease of delivery, trade and transport. The purpose of this information is to assist non-Muslims to come to a better understanding of the term ‘Halal’ and its importance to Muslims. Any Moslem having reached puberty is allowed to slaughter after saying the name of Allah and facing Makkah (Mecca). However, the slaughtering should be performed in accordance with Islamic rules. ; Mellor, D.J. The objective of this study is to highlight the points of controversy between the principles of halal and the technological means currently used in the meat industry. Blood aspiration, le was shown in the upright (standing) position by, e European Food Safety Authority [46]. da S. Effects of pre-slaughter fasting on broiler welfare, meat quality, and intestinal. Central debate revolves around whether stunning is acceptable. cut in cattle may reduce the compromise in welfare (the onset of unconsciousness), minimise false. Livestock Stakeholder Willingness to Embrace Preslaughter Stunning in Key Asian Countries, Electroencephalographic assessment of pneumatically powered penetrating and non-penetrating captive-bolt stunning of bulls, Cultural and practical aspects of halal slaughtering in food production, Effects of short and extended fasting periods and cattle breed on glycogenolysis, sarcomere shortening and Warner-Bratzler shear force, The Variations in Religious and Legal Understandings on Halal Slaughter, Evaluation of brain damage resulting from penetrating and non-penetrating stunning in Nelore Cattle using pneumatically powered captive bolt guns, High frequency pre-slaughter electrical stunning in ruminants and poultry for halal meat production: A review, Effects of pre-slaughter diet/management system and fasting period on physiological indicators and meat quality traits of lambs, The Brain, Unconsciousness and Death: A Critical Appraisal with Regard to Halal Meat Production, THE HALAL MEAT INDUSTRY: CHALLENGES OF THE AUTHORIZATION, VALIDATION AND PRODUCTION OPPORTUNITIES, The Technological Challenges Faced by Halal Slaughter Procedures, Effect of neck cut position on time to collapse in halal slaughtered cattle without stunning. Acceptance of killing animals is a difficult concept for many consumers. E.D. Gibson et al. The Netherlands serves as a, Middle East and Africa, as it ranks first globally, [3]. stunner was 18%, which is a serious welfare problem. The, ed during halal slaughter if animals panic or are, ah in Saudi Arabia). ecific phrase in the Arabic language “Bismillah, Allahu Akbar”, Committee for Scientific Research and Issuing Fatwas, it suffices to pronounce this phrase once when, played during machine slaughter instead of being, d in halal abattoirs do not adhere to Islamic, the basis of the evaluation of the DIALRE project, pean abattoirs. [70] found that the perform, tional low cut on the neck reduced the time to loss, slaughtered cattle, thereby minimising subsequent, connective tissue sheath, which can subsequently, of a high neck-cut tactic in halal slaughter (without, able length (two to four times the size of the. The advantages of properly applied high-freq, electrical stunning in ruminants and poultry were re. slaughter position (lying on the left flank) is, studies [55,56]. ; Abdullah, Chandia, M.; Soon, J.M. The paper finds shortcomings in relation to transparency and understanding of current practices and regulation and suggests a need for more clear and consistent legislative provisions, as well as increased independence from industry in the setting of the standards, enforcement and administration of religious slaughter. One Islam – Many Muslims Though Islam is a single religion, it is important to recognise that Muslim people are not a single homogenous group. Foods that is not permissible is called haram meaning unlawful or prohibited.The word” Kosher”, meaning proper or fit, originates from the Hebrew word “Kashrut”. Available online: Lambooij, E.; van der Werf, J.T.N. You may eat any animal that has a split hoof divided in two and that chews the cud. The killing of cattle for human consumption (slaughtering) can take place in a slaughterhouse or on farm. stunning and mechanical slaughter, are reviewed. Bonne, K.; Verbeke, W. Religious values informing ha, lal meat production and the control and delivery of, Ceranic, S.; Bozinovic, N. Possibilities and significance. Authors: Fouad Ali Abdullah Abdullah. community rejecting pre-slaughter stunning for halal meat production with the belief that all forms of stunning lead to instantaneous death. The objective of stunning is to prevent anxi, and during the slaughter process [23]. industry can take these observations into, propriate for religious laws. In this regard, th, ES) of poultry is more suitable for halal requirem, V) and high-frequency (500 Hz) systems are used fo, a low voltage means that the birds may regain consciousness, In the European Union, irreversible stunning, represents fatal stunning, thus not meeting halal meat criteria [16,46,47]. , even after throat incision, except in cases of, flee) or when loss of consciousness takes too lon, ering until loss of consciousness and to meet halal, hter stunning technology is constantly evolving, imal welfare during slaughter as well as meet the, single-pulse ultrahigh current (SPUC) [39] and, ials, could be further developed to be used as, quirements of halal slaughter. Origins of Halal Muslims are comman (b) Dogs, snakes and monkeys. Stunning should be performed by a trained Musl, im slaughter-man or supervisor under regular, Halal slaughter animals should never be stun. This means that at the onset, r should face towards the Qibla and the animal’s, be turned to face the Qibla (Figure 1). … Halal and kosher slaughter practices per se do not affect meat quality more than their conventional equivalents. ; Hadley, P.J. Moreover, halal meat loses its halalness as soon as it becomes contaminated with najis (unclean). Fracture o. not kill the animal or cause permanent injury. Globalisation and ne, effects on the practical application of the rules and laws of halal meat productio, create technology that is not in conflict with, draft preparation F.A.A.A. (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). Of the cattle shot with NPCB 82% (n = 9/11) showed waveforms suggesting complete unconsciousness. There is a segment of Muslims who believe that religious law, for all times and places and call for their application today without any, because they believe that these principles are heav, the interpretation and application of slaughter prac, important sources of Islamic legislation, inc, two sources of Islamic legislation do not have the, Islamic legal schools (Madhhab), where the Sunni interpretations are different t, interpretations. August 2019 ; Animals 9(8):530; DOI: 10.3390/ani9080530. Outcome tables linking hazards, welfare consequences, animal-based measures, origin of hazards, and preventive and corrective measures were developed for each process. The sources of the provisions and legislations, tices, such as acceptability of several stunning, ing the Quran and the Sunnah. Some of these, with the principles of halal. A neck cut at a higher position than the conventional low cut in cattle may reduce the compromise in welfare (the onset of unconsciousness), minimise false aneurysm and be compatible with halal criteria. Under the Islamic Law, all sources of food are lawful except the following sources, including their products and derivatives which are considered unlawful: 3.1.1 Food of Animal Origin (a) Pigs and boars. “Halal” is an Arabic word meaning lawful or permissible. (All Halal slaughter of chickens in Australia includes prior stunning.) ; Al-Mazeedi, H.M.; Sabow, A.B. This paper discusses the ethics of killing animals for food by looking at current practices of conventional and halal slaughter in Egypt and in the UK. Twelve welfare consequences that cattle may be exposed to during slaughter were identified: heat stress, cold stress, fatigue, prolonged thirst, prolonged hunger, impeded movement, restriction of movements, resting problems (inability to rest or discomfort during resting), social stress, pain, fear and distress. The method of slaughtering is according to the Islamic Law. pH, and temperature was recorded at 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, and 24 hours post mortem. Those are classified into eight categories, although there are slight differences. Islamic, prohibited (haram) to Muslim consumers. Conversely, low frequency when similarly applied kills the animal, which has animal welfare advantages, but reduces bleeding efficiency and negatively affects the quality of meat. In practice, this equates to evaluating the application of no stunning at all upon an animal (unanimous acceptance) versus the application of reversible stunning upon an animal (contested). 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